Resonance Hydrogen Generator White Paper
Energy consumption in this white paper report is an important indicator of living standards of modern civilization. According to the forecast of the World Energy Congress in 2020, the share of alternative energy converters (AGEs) is 5.8% of the total energy consumption. In the developed countries of Europe it is planned in 2020 to provide environmentally friendly heating 70% of housing stock.
There are more than 233 power plants nowadays run on alternative energy sources (APEC) with a total capacity of about 5,136 MW and 117 power plants with a total capacity of 2,017 MW are under construction. The USA takes the leading position on alternative power plants in the world (over 40% of existing capacity in the world).
Hydrogen Fuel Initiative
Hydrogen, the simplest and lightest of all chemical elements can be considered the ideal fuel. The combustion of hydrogen produced water, which can again be decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen, a process that does not cause any environmental pollution. Hydrogen flame does not emit into the atmosphere products, which is inevitably accompanied by burning any other fuels: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon, ash, organic peroxides, etc.
Heat of combustion of hydrogen is the highest of all known types of fuel is shown in Table 1.
Hydrogen is also an important chemical raw material for many industries, such as the manufacture of fertilizers, food, metallurgy and petrochemicals. It can be successfully used to generate electricity for local thermal power plants.
What Others are Conducting
Nowadays, for obtaining hydrogen the following methods are applied, which are inefficient and the amount of energy required for obtaining hydrogen is too high:
- obtaining hydrogen from organic fuel in manufacture under conditions of using expensive equipment
with a relatively short service life, whereby the process requires preliminary purification of starting
material and final product, whereas according to the emission rate this method corresponds to said
organic fuel burning.
- semi-industrial – semi-laboratory method of obtaining hydrogen and oxygen by water electrolysis, but because of low plant capacities and relatively high electric energy consumption – more than 5-6 kilowatt-hour per one cubic meter of hydrogen, it is not widely used.
- plasma-chemical method of obtaining hydrogen and oxygen, based on carbon dioxide ionization in the field microwave radio radiation, close to the vibration frequency of carbon dioxide molecules. In the result of carbon dioxide microwave irradiation the energy equaling to ˜2,89 electron volt/molecule is absorbed and carbon oxide CO+1/2O2 with partial mixture ionization occurs, all intermediate reactions go off in non-equilibrium state and products of the reaction need to be constantly withdrawn. In the presence of water vapor in carbon dioxide carbon monoxide is generated, and it enters into the reaction with said water vapor: CO +H2O –> CO2+H2. This reaction is again non-equilibrium and the constant withdrawal of decomposition products from the reaction zone is required. The whole said process is held near perforated surface of electrolysis electrodes with opposite polarity. The electrodes are hollow and are connected to cooler-dehydrators, molecular sieves and after coolers, and due to the electrodes perforation it is possible to avoid their polarization and to further decompose water vapor into oxygen and hydrogen, with withdrawal of unstable decay products out of the zone of the reaction and microwave radiation action. Disadvantages of the known methods are as follows: low energetic efficiency, high expenditure of energy, unwanted or unpredictable results of electrochemical reactions, low productivity, and necessity to use electrolytes, structural complexity and the use of expensive materials as well as low maintainability.
Some of the disadvantages of this method include the following:
- extra high working voltage;
- structural complexity;
According to available prior art there is a method of obtaining hydrogen by water decomposition under electric current by applying direct-current voltage from the external current source to the electrodes immersed in water, with the voltage exceeding the value of electrochemical decomposition potential (3). As a result of electrolysis, restored hydrogen releases on the cathode, and oxygen releases on the anode.
Among the disadvantages of this method one can name the following:
- the necessity to use an electrolyte, for example, concentrated water solution KOH;
- the process of electrolysis is carried out under high pressure;
- the powerful source of electric current is designed for currents of several hundred
The method, closest to the method proposed, involves obtaining hydrogen and oxygen from water vapour on a catalyst by means of its transmission through electric field, described in Great Britain Application N 1585527.
To the disadvantages of this method belongs the following:
- impossibility to obtain large quantities of hydrogen;
- high energy capacity;
- structural complexity and the use of expensive materials;
- impossibility to apply this method using process water, because of scale and precipitation appearing on the apparatus walls at the temperature of saturated vapor, thus leading to its rapid failure;
- special gathering vessels, used for collecting derived hydrogen and oxygen, make the method non-fire-rated and dangerously explosive.